Laman utama Journal of Teacher Education Methods for Teaching: A Skills Approach David Jacobsen; Paul Eggen; Donald Kauchak; Carole Dulaney...
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Leonard BOOKSHELF Teaching Spanish to the Hispanic Bilingual : Issues, Aims and Methods Valdes, Guadalupe, Anthony G. Lozano and Rodolfo Garcia-Moya, eds. New York: Teachers College Press, 1980. Reviewed by: Judith Lessow-Hurley Assistant Professor - Bilingual Program San Jose State University San Jose, California Two years agoI attended a parent orientation session at a junior high school in the Southwest. Various administrators described the programs and classes available at the school. Spanish was mentioned as an offering of the foreign language department. Any student wishing to take Spanish could begin immediately in seventh grade with an introductory quarter-long course in which s/he could master some basic phrases and take a beginning look at Spanish culture. Finally,I asked the assistant principal if there were any Spanish classes for native Spanish speakers who might wish to pursue studies in the language. In view of the fact that more than one third of the town is Spanish speaking, his response was astounding. &dquo;If your child has special needs,&dquo; he said, &dquo;please see me after the meeting.&dquo; Because of interrelated social and political factors, Spanish is often viewed in the United States as a lowstatus language. Even many bilingual education programs are transitional, using Spanish as a medium of instruction only until a child reaches a predetermined level of proficiency in English. The result is what has been called subtractive bilingualism: one language is learned while another is lost. At the secondary level the educational system turns around and teaches Spanish as a foreign language, using philosophies and methods that are unsuited to a student who already has a command of the language. These approaches prevail despite our history and our current linguistic reality, which point to the fact that Spanish is a native language of the United States. 52 Teaching Spanish to the Hispanic Bilingual is an important book. It does not ask whether it is appropriate to ; teach Spanish to Hispanic bilinguals. It assumes that this is appropriate, and that special attention to tailored methods is as warranted here as in any area of instruction. Second, it is not a &dquo;do-as-I-say&dquo; book. Articles are presented in both Spanish and English, a vital validation of the Spanish language for professional, pedagogical use. Finally, when teachers of Spanish expand their purview to include consideration of Spanish language instruction for bilinguals, they are working in concert with bilingual educators who favor language maintenance approaches to education. As the book bears out, this working relationship is productive one. Teaching Spanish to the Hispanic Bilingual is divided into four sections. a The first part looks at basic theoretical considerations: How does this kind of instruction differ from Spanish as a foreign language instruction ? What special problems do Hispanic bilinguals face when studying Spanish? How is it appropriate and possible to work with students’ dialects? Part two investigates several practical aspects of teaching Spanish to Hispanic bilinguals, with an emphasis on non-prescriptive, culture-based instructional techniques. The third section reproduces four syllabi developed at the National Endowment for the Humanities 1978 institute, &dquo;Teaching Spanish to the Native Speaker.&dquo; The final part of the book discusses the evaluation of language proficiency, an area which has been the subject of much research and debate, especially since legislative mandates have made identification of language proficiencies an area of critical concern for bilingual educators. In methods and specifics, the book is geared to instruction of secondary or college level Hispanic bilingual students. It provides insights for those engaged in the preparation of bilingual teachers. As a philosophical statement, Teaching Spanish to the Hispanic Bilingual is indispensable to all bilingual educators and Spanish Downloaded from jte.sagepub.com by guest on April 10, 2015 Kaplan, teachers who work with students. * * editor Hispanic * Methods for Teaching: A Skills Approach David Jacobsen; Paul Eggen; Donald Kauchak; Carole Dulaney Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merill Publishing Company, 1981. 296 pp. Reviewed by: John Palladino Assistant Professor of Education Marymount Manhattan College Methods for Teaching: A Skills Approach is a vast improvement over texts currently used in courses dealing with instructional techniques at both the inservice and preservice levels. The authors present a three part model for teaching in chapter one (planning, implementing, and evaluation), giving needed focus for a text dealing with teaching skills. A chapter dealing with the goals of instruction wisely incorporates Bloom’s taxonomy; this is better than the traditional use of the taxonomy in dealing with levels of questioning. The authors’ chapter on questions effectively uses a single typescript to demonstrate different types of higher order questions. Other strengths of the text are its abundant use of teaching scenarios to illustrate the authors’ three part model of teaching as well as expository, discovery, and problemsolving lessons. The reader is generously provided with citations leading to reviews of research on topic related areas, such as advantages of a taxonomy and rationales for the use of unit plans. The text includes a chapter on measurement which discusses the important distinction between measurement and evaluation. The last chapter focuses on grades and attempts to help the student distinguish between normand criterion-referenced tests. It also discusses the purposes of grades and how grades are determined. Each of the eleven chapters is easy to read and includes an introduction, objectives, exercises and feedback, a summary, and references. To improve an already excellent text,I would have the authors include chapters dealing with techniques of motivation, giving directions, and providing explanations. In addition, although the chapter preventive measures for classroom management is an excellent inclusion, the chapter dealing with actual management strategies is much too sketchy, especially when discussing behavior modification techniques. on Yet this text is the bestI have read in its field, andI will be adopting it for my in instructional techni- own courses in preservice education, supplementing it to correct the areas ques of weakness thatI have described. * Teaching With Lloyd Duck * * Charisma Allyn & Bacon, Inc., 1981, xii plus 312 pp. Boston: problematic Reviewed by: A. Browde Associate Professor Department of Education Meredith College, Raleigh, Carolina experiences of the teacher. Joseph North Duck is among those who side with traditional, but he leans heavily upon the workable. In Teaching With Charisma, familiar educational the Disagreement persists over the relationship between philosophy and philosophy positions of essentialism, experimentalism, reconstructionism, existentialism, and perennialism are education. delineated, with behaviorism offered There are those who analyzing the language employed to express ideas. Others focus upon a society’s social philosophy and the schooling that is derived. Many still opt for the world-view traditional approach, deducing relevant educational policies and programs. All are faced with the challenge, &dquo;What difference does it make?&dquo; Critics, implying a kind of disrespect for philosophy of education as being impractical and stress irrelevant, solutions seek answers and to the day-to-day if it were an afterthought, outside the realm of philosophy. The author’s primary interests in the link between teachers’ classroom behaviors and philosophies, their personality and style, and certain issues of integrity, are considered for the sake of students who observe teachers’ behaviors and desire to respond apas propriately. A unique contribution of the book is what Duck terms &dquo;an analytical tool,&dquo; for use in indicating teacher behavior and acknowledging one’s philosophy of education. This tool deals specifically with the learner, subject matter, strategies, and teacher conduct. Illustrations of the same are presented as role models, scales, and dials. Problems designed to test one’s analytical skills are provided. The author uses primary source material, including pertinent offerings from George Kneller’s Introduction to the Philosophy of Education, suggests classroom dialogues associated with definite philosophical orientations, and summarizes the strengths and weaknesses involved with those particular points of view. The overall effort is commendable. Both teachers and teacher educators benefit from the counsel will presented. Some may find Duck’s use of &dquo;charisma&dquo; as more stipulative than descriptive, perhaps even misleading; his reference eclectism to more than efficient and serhis use of educational and viceable ; philosophy labels more conventional than novel. There is no doubt, however, about the author’s effort to remind teachers that professional continual includes commitment study of their own classroom behavior and of the climate in which they work. He makes it clear that philosophy of education can help with such study. apologetic * * * 53 Downloaded from jte.sagepub.com by guest on April 10, 2015