Laman utama Micron Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis: Joseph Goldstein, Dale E. Newbury, David C....
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Micron 34 (2003) 453 www.elsevier.com/locate/micron Book review Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis Joseph Goldstein, Dale E. Newbury, David C. Joy, Charles E. Lyman, Patrick Echlin, Eric Lifshin, Linda C. Sawyer, J.R. Michael (Eds.), Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York/Boston/Dordrecht/London/Moscow, 2003, pp. 689 (Hardbound. Price: e76.50/US $75.00/GB £48.00) The third edition of the book Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis reflects the great expansion in the capabilities of the modern scanning electron microscope (SEM), including the use of X-ray spectrometers. One of the most remarkable advances in SEM technique has been the emergence of the variable-pressure/environmental SEMs, which have enabled the observation of liquid or wet samples, thereby allowing dynamic experiments with living biological specimens and the direct in situ observation of physical changes within crystals and other chemicals such as polymers. Low-voltage operation below 5 kV has minimized the effect of charged surfaces and highresolution imaging has continued to provide a more thorough understanding of how secondary electrons are generated. The field emission gun SEM, with its high brightness and advanced electron optics, which minimizes lens aberrations yielding an effective nanometer-scale beam and the ‘through-the-lens’ detector to enhance the measurement of primary-beam-excited secondary electrons, have made high-resolution SEM imaging the rule rather than the exception. This book is a must for all regular SEM users, for researchers exploring the limits of resolution and image composition as well as for applied scientists in the materials sciences. It is derived from many years of cumulative experience from teaching more than 1500 students at a Microscopy Summer School. Hence, the beginner in SEM is introduced to the pathways of structural and elemental analysis. This is complemented by a comprehensive description of all important SEM components and modes of instrumental operation. How; does the SEM work? No question remains unanswered regarding the functioning of 0968-4328/$ - see front matter q 2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.micron.2003.08.001 the electron gun with its associated structures, lenses, apertures, etc. How does one get a perfect image? The most important prerequisite is to find the adequate method for specimen preparation, included fixation, dehydration and coating of surfaces. How does one avoid image artefacts (for instance, by over-coating of microstructures or extraction of soluble components during the process of critical point drying)? The steps in producing perfect images are always followed by appropriate image interpretation, which usually comes with increasing experience and knowledge of the subject. As in the field of digital photography some manipulation of image brightness, contrast, three-dimensionality, etc. is always possible. A final question always is: what are the real dimensions of a structure? Thus, all investigators involved in making accurate dimensional measurements of surface structures must keep in mind the effects of angle and signal processing on the final image. The reader of this book will find almost no question left unanswered. Finally, the reader can turn to many special SEM techniques, like variable pressure, environmental SEM and the generation of X-Rays in the SEM specimen, not forgetting the numerous variants of freezing technology. Significantly, four chapters are devoted to the methods of Xray microanalysis, which are important in life and earth sciences, as well as in the materials sciences. Metals, ceramics, rocks, minerals, microelectronic and packaged devices, particles and fibres are the preferred specimen for the analysis of elemental composition. Because polymers a becoming more and more important in many fields of research, a chapter is focused on this class of chemicals. Altogether, this book is impressive because of the broad methodological spectrum it contains; it should not be missing from the bookshelf of any respectable EM laboratory. Gerhard Eisenbeis Institute of Zoology, University of Mainz, Mainz D-55099, Germany